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  1. Read In These Words Yaoi Manga by Guiltpleasure 2012 Paperback PDF book 18a19fda
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  3. Secret Thorns (Yaoi) : Kikuko Kikuya :
  4. See a Problem?
  5. :ribbon: уασι 30 ∂αу ¢нαℓℓєиgє :gem:

Although similar to the earlier published works, yaoi manga appropriated copyright-protected characters and was often more humorous and explicit. For example, researchers have documented that BL manga was mentioned in China in the early s [ 1 ] and in South Korea by the late s [ 5 ]. The increasing popularity of yaoi media has received attention in the motivation literature of several interdisciplinary fields e. Motivation can be described as a process that manifests in the maintenance of desired or undesired physical and psychological activities and in the persistence of behavioral responses [ 9 ].

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Read In These Words Yaoi Manga by Guiltpleasure 2012 Paperback PDF book 18a19fda

According to the results of her qualitative research, ten distinct motive dimensions could be identified. The Pure entertainment dimension refers to a motive of seeking relaxation and entertainment. These diverse motivations for consuming yaoi may be complicated by cultural and legal differences between various countries that affect the context in which yaoi is consumed. For example, female readers may consume yaoi as part of their rejection of or resistance to conservative patriarchal or parental norms about sex and gender [ 5 , 14 , 15 ]— as might some male readers [ 16 ].

For example, licensed Japanese yaoi in the United States are chosen and edited to avoid legal or social condemnation [ 20 ] while yaoi consumers in Australia risk arrest if they choose to read manga or watch anime about characters who appear to be under the age of sexual consent [ 21 ]. Recently, Chou [ 24 ] conducted a qualitative survey on Taiwanese yaoi readers and found that female readers are motivated to challenge social taboos, experience freedom from gender constraints, and enjoy incorporating traditional gender norms into homosexual love stories while reading or creating yaoi.

Similarly, Lilja and Wasshede [ 18 ] found that Swedish yaoi readers expressed an interest in yaoi materials for their portrayal of gender equality and their sexually arousing aspects. Furthermore, the majority of previous studies have focused specifically on yaoi manga reading motives instead of exploring yaoi media consumption motives comprehensively.

Yaoi manga 👉Walk On Water P 05💢

Therefore, the present study aimed to explore the motivational background of yaoi media consumption. Drawing on the comprehensive motivational framework suggested by Pagliassotti [ 13 ], the primary goal of the present investigation was to identify the range of motivational factors prompting yaoi media consumption. The secondary aim of this study was to operationalize these dimensions, develop a scale to assess the identified factors, and analyze the psychometric properties of the constructed assessment instrument.

Data collection was carried out using an online survey focusing on sexual behaviors and pornography consumption habits. A call for voluntary participation was advertised on one of the most visited Hungarian news websites As an incentive, two tablets were raffled off among all participants who completed the online survey. A total of 24, participants In accordance with the object of the present study, further data analysis was conducted on a sample of participants who read or viewed yaoi within the past year 4.

Participants who did not complete the yaoi motives questionnaire Therefore, the final sample comprised participants aged 18—73 years Less than half of the participants reported being heterosexual Data regarding major demographic characteristics gender, age, and sexual orientation were collected. The aim of the present study was to explore the underlying motives for yaoi media consumption. Based on the ten motivational dimensions identified by Pagliassotti [ 13 ] in her qualitative research, three or four items were constructed per factor, resulting in a item pool.

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The statements were created to reflect the content of the original responses in the report of Pagliassotti [ 13 ] as closely as possible. The most typical responses were considered as the basis of selection. To test the hypothesized ten-factor structure of the constructed scale, confirmatory factor analysis CFA was performed with Mplus 8.

Items were treated as ordinal indicators due to severe floor effect in some items and serious deviation from normal distribution in the responses. Besides the first-order model of primary factors, two higher-order constructs were tested: a second-order model and a bi-factor model. Acknowledging the high correlations among primary factors, the second-order model served to offer explanation for the inter-factor correlations. Estimating a bi-factor measurement structure alongside a second-order model has been proposed as an effective approach to exploring construct-relevant multidimensionality [ 30 ].

The bi-factor measurement model allows for the indicators of motives to load on an overall primary factor e. The general specification of a bi-factor model requires that the specific factors correlate neither with each other nor with the general factor.

Secret Thorns (Yaoi) : Kikuko Kikuya :

Therefore, correlations between specific factors and the general factor were fixed to zero [ 31 ]. In order to compare the two higher-order models, a DIFFTEST procedure implemented in Mplus was performed, which allows for the comparison between nested models with ordinary indicators [ 26 ]. To ensure that group comparisons are meaningful when investigating differences between men and women, heterosexuals and non-heterosexuals in yaoi consumption motives, measurement invariance of the retrained bi-factor model was tested across gender and sexual orientation with the convenience feature of Mplus using delta parameterization [ 26 ].


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Thus, several multigroup CFAs were performed [ 32 — 34 ]. In the first step, two separate models were estimated freely for male and female and heterosexual and non-heterosexual participants. Subsequently, configural invariance was tested in which factor loadings and thresholds were free across groups, scale factors were fixed at one in all groups, and factor means were fixed at zero in all groups. In the next step, metric invariance i. However, when analyzing categorical outcomes in an invariance framework in Mplus, thresholds and factor loadings must be freed or constrained, which cannot be applied to a test of metric invariance.

Therefore, after the configural model, scalar invariance was tested in which factor loadings and thresholds were constrained to be equal across groups, scale factors were fixed atone in one group and held free in the other groups, and factor means were fixed at zero in one group and were freed in the other groups. When comparing the increasingly constrained models, relative change in the fit indices i. In the final step, a multiple indicators multiple causes MIMIC confirmatory factor analysis was conducted on the retained bi-factor model to investigate the associations between yaoi motives, gender, age, and sexual orientation.

MIMIC models allow estimation of the effect of indicators on latent variables while controlling for the direct effect of grouping variables on latent constructs. In the present study, the MIMIC model incorporates the yaoi motive dimensions as latent factors and the respective items as indicators of latent variables. This part of the model is equivalent to a confirmatory factor analysis. However, the model is complemented with exogenous variables i.

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All participants were informed about the aim of the study and provided written consent before completing the questionnaire. The majority of participants In the present sample, the vast majority of participants The average age of participants at their first exposure to yaoi was The effect size was medium. Factor loadings and descriptive statistics are presented in Table 2. Some reasons are listed below. Please indicate to what extent each of the following statements is characteristic of you by clicking on the appropriate response: 1 —very uncharacteristic of me, 2 —slightly characteristic of me, 3 —moderately characteristic of me, 4 —characteristic of me, 5 —very characteristic of me.

The column of CFA 1 represents factor loadings yielded in the preliminary CFA conducted on the original ten motive factors, whereas the column of CFA 2 represents factor loadings yielded in the investigation of the final, nine-factor structure of the YMCQ. In the bifactor model correlations among specific factors as well as between general and specific factors were fixed to zero. ECV indicates the proportion of common variance explained by the target construct.

H represents the proportion of variability in the construct explained by its own indicator variables. Therefore, nine motive factors were analyzed in the subsequent test of second-order and bi-factor models. In order to seek explanation for the high correlations among all motive factors, two higher-order factor models were also estimated: a second-order model with one second-order factor and a bi-factor model that specifies both a single common factor and nine specific factors.

In the second-order factor model, all primary factors loaded on one second-order factor. The factor loadings of primary factors ranged between 0. In addition to the second-order model, the impact of general attitude factor was estimated on each item. More specifically, the bi-factor measurement model allowed the indicators of motives to load on an overall primary factor i.

As the general specification of a bi-factor model requires that the specific factors correlate neither with each other nor with the general factor [ 30 ], test of the bi-factor model was performed without allowing the covariance among specific factors. Standardized factor loadings of this bi-factor model are presented in Table 2.

On the specific factors, loadings were much more varied between 0. The bi-factor model is presented in Fig 1. Psychometric properties of the bi-factor model are presented in Table 2. Relevant reliability indices including explained common variance, omega, omega hierarchical, and H index of the general and specific factors were also estimated. Omega values ranging from 0. However, the omega hierarchical values were much smaller in specific factors ranging from 0. Therefore, much of the variance of each specific score is explained largely by the general factor, and only moderately or slightly by the specific factors.

Results of the measurement invariance analysis based on the bi-factor model are presented in Table 3. Baseline models for male and female participants indicated a good fit to the data. When parameters were constrained, changes in fit indices were observed. Measurement invariance was also tested with regard to sexual orientation. The psychometric properties of this model are presented in Table 4.

Age was a continuous variable.

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The present study investigated the motives behind yaoi media consumption. Although confirmatory factor analysis supported the proposed ten-factor model, two latent motives were merged into one single factor due to their extremely high correlation above 0. Due to several highly correlated factors, two higher-order models were also tested: a second-order model with one second-order factor and a bi-factor model that specified both a general factor and nine specific factors. The second-order factor in the background of the original factors may indicate a general preference for the yaoi genre.

More specifically, fans of this genre may tend to indicate high levels of motivation in general as a result of their dedication to the genre. Both higher-order models had acceptable fit with the bi-factor model yielding the closest fit to the data. Therefore, the bi-factor structure was retained and used in subsequent analyses. The Yaoi Consumption Motives Questionnaire YCMQ with its nine motivational dimensions allows for the identification, description, and operationalization of a considerably comprehensive motivational profile of the yaoi genre consumer.

Furthermore, the YCMQ demonstrated strong psychometric properties in terms of factor structure, reliability, and measurement invariance. Furthermore, the application of a bi-factor model allowed for the estimation of the role of a general factor alongside with relevant specific factors that represent each motive dimension. The variance in scores of each motive factor is explained largely by a general motive factor, with the exception of some factors in which specific factors also had relevant contribution.

The general score of all items could be a reliable reflection of a general positive attitude towards this genre. Future research should pay attention to the implication of these findings when applying this scale for the assessment of a general positive attitude towards yaoi as well as each specific motive dimension related to this genre. This result is in line with previous studies that found men having higher motivation to seek sexual content on the Internet than women [ 38 , 39 ].

A cross-cultural study involving 25 European countries revealed that the highest perceived lesbian, gay and bisexual LGB acceptance was observed in Denmark, Netherlands and Sweden, whereas the lowest level of acceptance was reported in Ukraine and the Russian Federation. Hungary was the 19 th most accepting country of the 25 European countries [ 40 ], reflecting a relatively low level of acceptance. It is possible that non-heterosexual viewers identify with yaoi characters more easily than heterosexuals and consume yaoi to resist or temporarily escape a heterosexist culture.

The Pure entertainment dimension suggests that yaoi serves a function consistent with that of other media; that is, the entertaining and relaxing aspects of media consumption also appeared in studies exploring the motives for using mass media e. This is somewhat surprising, given previous research in the U. Further research seems necessary to determine whether this may be a culturally specific difference.

One possible explanation for this finding could be that younger yaoi consumers have higher levels of sensation-seeking compared to older consumers, as was proposed by Vettehen and Nuijten [ 43 ] in relation to motivations for viewing television news stories. In summary, the present study provides a more nuanced picture of the motives underlying yaoi media consumption and offers a comprehensive, multidimensional instrument to assess them in a reliable way.

:ribbon: уασι 30 ∂αу ¢нαℓℓєиgє :gem:

However, this study has some limitations that should be considered for future research. Furthermore, this model has been developed primarily within a Hungarian and U. Second, the convergent and divergent validity and test-retest reliability of the developed assessment instrument should also be examined in future research. Finally, due to the large variety of yaoi media forms e.

However, the primary aim of the development of the YCMQ was to create an assessment instrument that assesses motives for consuming yaoi content in a wide range of related media. Despite these limitations, the findings of present study support previous qualitative research on yaoi consumption and provide researchers with a basis for further quantitative research on yaoi media consumption motives. The Yaoi Consumption Motives Questionnaire YCMQ demonstrates strong psychometric properties and proves to be an adequate assessment instrument to assess the considerably full range of yaoi media consumption motives.

The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. This usage may be considered offensive by female otaku who are not yaoi fans. Fujoshi and fudanshi are used as characters in otaku -themed anime and manga, particularly those aimed at men.

Mark McLelland describes this aesthetic as being seen as problematic in recent Western society. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Demographic groups. Omake Terminology Iconography. Anime and manga portal. The Advocate. Intersections: Gender and Sexuality in Asia and the Pacific AFP via Google News. Archived from the original on Retrieved 10 July In West, Mark ed.


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The Japanification of Children's Popular Culture. Journal of American Culture. Retrieved 21 April Male homosexuality in modern Japan. Understanding Manga and Anime. Libraries Unlimited. In Berndt, Jaqueline ed. Archived from the original PDF on 29 July Retrieved 29 October The Guide. Archived from the original PDF on Manga: images in French. Editions H. Japanese Girls Creating the Yaoi Phenomenon". In Sherrie Inness, ed. Retrieved Porn Studies.

Duke University Press p. Giant Robot 42 : 60— Spring Electronic journal of contemporary japanese studies. In Perper, Timothy; Cornog, Martha eds.